What is telecommunications?

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Telecommunications is a wide range of topic. Telecommunication is also by the name Telecom. Telecom services primarily involve transmitting information data over significant and extensive distances using electronic means referring to all kinds of voice, data, and video transmission. Information can be sent through various means like wire and wireless telephones, microwave communications, fiber optics, radio and television broadcasting, internet, telegraphs, and satellite.

Telecommunications can take place only when a complete circuit consisting of two stations, each equipped with a transmitter and receiver.  At any station, the transmitter and receiver may be combined to a single device known as a transceiver. Signal transmission can be via electrical wire and cable, optical fiber, electromagnetic fields or light. When transmission and reception of data occur utilizing electromagnetic fields, it is known as wireless communications.

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Types of telecommunications networks

When multiple stations transmit and receive or exchange data among themselves, such a manner of telecommunication is known as a telecommunication network. The best and most significant example of such a telecommunication network would be the World Wide Web or internet. Comparatively smaller examples include:-

  • Wide Area Network or WAN
  • Telephone Network
  • Cellular Network
  • Broadcast Network
  • Radio Operators
  • Police communication network
  • Taxi dispatch network

Data is transmitted in a telecommunications circuit through the use of electrical signals called the carrier or carrier wave. For the carrier wave to carry some information requires it to be modulated. This particular modulation can be classified into analog or digital modulation.

Analog modulation involves varying the carrier waves. An apt and oldest example for analog modulation is AM or Amplitude Modulation used in broadcasting frequencies. Modern telecommunication uses Internet Protocols or IPs to transmit data through underlying physical transmissions.

Telecommunications service providers

Telecommunication service providers or communication service providers offer a wide array of internet and WAN services along with other global services. Telecommunication systems are typically run and owned by these telecommunication service providers.

In many nations, the telecommunication services are mainly government owned at first, but most of them have become privatized now. Most nations and countries have their own set of rules and regulations of broadcasting guidelines enforced by their government agencies. In the United States of America, the FCC or Federal Communications Commission is their primary regulatory authority. Due to the existence of large umbrella companies; the varied services offered by different telecoms are internet service providers, wireless service providers, radio and television broadcaster, managed service provider, cable companies and satellite television providers.